Norske kilder. Meddelelse fra Vannboringsarkivet nr. 7.
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Norwegian springs may be divided into two main groups: A. Springs from Quaternary deposits. B. Springs from rock. Common types of springs from Quaternary deposits are shown in figs. 1-3. In areas covered by sea, during and after the Quaternary ice age, gravel and sand deposits are the most important water bearing formations. Above this sea level, glacifluvial deposits are aquifers. Springs from top moraine are often supplied by water from rock springs situated along the upper edge of the less permeable ground moraine. In many velleys this moraine is a regulating factor for the ground water in rock, and often causes a high water level in the rock fractures. Alluvial cone springs are common in connection with glacifluvial deposits. Norwegian rocks are with a few exeptions impervious and the ground water occurs in fractures. In fig. 4 types of rock springs are shown schematically. Springs occur at the boundary between the permeable and fractured Permian lavas, mainly rhombporphyries, and underlying shales in the Oslo Region. Similar springs are common near the contact between thrusted Eocambrian sandstones and underlying Cambrian shales in the central part of Southern Norway.